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    Thread: TECH: Camshaft and Valvespring info

    1. 07-27-2010 10:33 AM #1
      The following is a good primer for those uneducated in this subject. I've decided NOT to re-invent the wheel and will now use existing material I found on the net. In the long run, it will make things clearer for you, the reader, and will allow me to focus more on the VW application aspect.
      I've included a .gif of the 4 stroke process to help visualize the details written below.


      "I just got a Golf/Jetta 2.slow and want to make it faster. What camshaft should I get?"


      How often we have seen this question posted here? I think it could quite possibly be one of the top three most frequently asked questions in the 2.0 8v engine forum. After all, the only way to get an N/A 2.0 to perform anywhere near its four cylinder peers is to drop an aftermarket cam in it. But why does installing an aftermarket camshaft have such a great effect on this engine? Or any engine for that matter? First we need to dive into how a camshaft works and what its functions are within an engine.

      Before we begin:

      Below are a few pieces of reference material to help visualize things that are discussed later on......

      Here we have a photo description of EVERY part of a camshaft/lobe:



      to help visualize the 4 stroke combustion process, refer to this:

      EXHAUST SIDEINTAKE SIDE


      The Basics:

      Let's start with the functions of a camshaft. As we all know, the engine in your car is basically one big air pump. It pulls in outside air mixed with a fuel, compresses it, converts the energy from the compressed/combusted gas mixture into mechanical motion, then expels the waste gas only to repeat the process over again. And depending what rpm your engine is at, this four stroke process takes place in a fraction of a second. Ok, so that was an extremely rudimentary explanation, but you will agree that it is an air pump, right? Ok. Now, in order to get all that inbound air/fuel in and spent gasses out, there needs to be something that times all of these events. You guessed it, that something is a camshaft. What the camshaft regulates are three major events: WHEN the valves open (valve timing), HOW MUCH the valves open (lift), and HOW LONG the valves are open for (duration). Out of those three, the two that are most critical are the when and the how long . Changing these two events could take your car from a docile, smooth idling *****cat to something that sounds like a 1940 John Deere farm tractor.

      Moving forward, I will break everything up into two parts. Part 1 will consist of the physics behind camshaft functions. In part 2, I will do my best to guide you into taking whats written in Part 1 and apply in terms for our specific engines and to help you make an educated decision on your next camshaft purchase.

      PART 1

      The epiphany.

      Considerable information has been recorded about numerous aspects of the four stroke internal combustion engine. Nevertheless, only a small percentage of people really understand how it works and even fewer still know how to modify an engine to suit their needs. I will try to simplify this complex subject by discussing some basic principles that may be overlooked or misunderstood by the average person. First, it is very important to understand the relationship between piston travel directions and valve timing events. The reason this relationship is important is because it is one of the few things that is relatively easy to adjust/change. The camshaft which opens and closes the valves makes ONE complete revolution (360 degrees) while the crankshaft moving the piston up and down the cylinder rotates TWICE (720 degrees). Camshaft timing is usually expressed in terms of crankshaft degrees relative to the piston location in the cylinder. That is, relative to Top Dead Center (TDC) and Bottom Dead Center (BDC), respectively. Note that during the four strokes of a piston in an internal combustion engine the crankshaft will rotate 720 degrees and the piston will be at each TDC and BDC twice.

      THE FIRST STROKE.

      Starting at TDC, the piston starts from zero velocity and moves down the cylinder during the intake stroke; first picking up speed and then slowing down again when it reaches the bottom of the stroke. As the piston moves down the cylinder, the intake valve is opening. Some air/gas mixture starts to flow into the cylinder as the valve opens, but the greatest gulp comes when the pressure differential is the greatest. This occurs when the piston reaches its maximum velocity somewhere between 70 to 80 degrees ATDC. What governs piston velocity is the stroke, rod length, RPM, and piston pin off-set. The maximum piston speed of the engine is then limited by the resistance to gas flow of the engine and/or the stresses due to the inertia of the moving parts. You must be wondering why I'm talking about piston velocity during the first stroke.

      FACT ONE: Volumetric efficiency is directly related to piston velocity!

      Volumetric efficiency is a measure of the effectiveness of an engine's intake system and there are about 200 miles of air above the engine just waiting to fill the cylinder with 14.7 psi at sea level. The intake valve is almost closed as the piston reaches BDC, but it does not close completely until after BDC, when the piston is on its way back up the cylinder. The reason for this is because the incoming air/fuel mixture still has momentum even though the piston has slowed way down. We are now starting,

      THE SECOND STROKE.

      The piston compresses the air/fuel mixture to a high enough pressure and temperature to permit spark plug ignition. We hope that this results in a CONTROLLED BURN, rather than an explosion (detonation), that produces POWER and moves the piston down for,

      THE THIRD STROKE.

      Power is produced while the gases in the cylinder expand and cool. In most instances, the gases are at a relatively low pressure by the time the crankshaft reaches 90 degrees After Top Dead Center (ATDC), so we can safely open the exhaust valve Before Bottom Dead Center (BBDC) to take advantage of blow-down. Otherwise, the piston would have to push ALL the exhaust out. When the piston reaches BDC we begin,

      THE FOURTH STROKE.

      The exhaust valve is opening at a fairly rapid rate, the piston is going up, and if the exhaust valve is not open a lot by the time the piston reaches maximum velocity, there will be resistance in the cylinder caused by excessive exhaust gas pressure. This produces conditions which are referred to as pumping losses. As the piston reaches the top of the cylinder, the end of the fourth stroke, you will see the exhaust valve is almost closed, but, lo and behold, the intake valve is just beginning to rise off the seat! At TDC at the end of the fourth stroke, both the intake and exhaust valves are open just a little. For this reason, this part of the stroke is called the OVERLAP PERIOD.

      During the overlap period you will often find that both valves will be open an equal amount. This condition is referred to as SPLIT OVERLAP. On standard engines, the valves are only open together for 15 - 30 degrees of crankshaft rotation. In a race engine operating at 5 - 7000 RPM, you will find the overlap period to be in the neighborhood of 60 - 100 degrees (which also translates to more total duration)! As you might expect, with this much overlap the low speed running is very poor and a lot of the intake charge goes right out the exhaust pipe.

      CALCULATING DURATIONS

      Let us review the four strokes again and add some timing events to calculate the total valve duration. For illustrative purposes, we can discuss a good street cam with a 268 degree duration and 108 degree lobe centers. (The lobe center angle is the angle in camshaft degrees between full intake cam lift and full exhaust cam lift). As we discussed above, at the end of the fourth stroke both valves are open and the next stroke is the intake stroke. Referring to the engine .gif up top, we see that the intake valve began to open at 26 degrees BTDC. The piston moves down the cylinder after the crankshaft passes TDC, and the valve reaches full lift at 108 degrees ATDC (lobe center). Note also that the intake valve is still open when the piston reaches BDC. We can start to add things up now. The crankshaft has rotated 180 degrees from TDC to BDC on the first stroke and the intake valve opened 26 degrees BTDC, so the total crankshaft rotation so far is 26 + 180 = 206 degrees. We started with a 268 degree camshaft so that tells us when the intake valve will close: 268 - 206 = 62 degrees ABDC. Note that even though the second stroke is the compression stroke, we see that it starts while the intake valve is still open!

      FACT TWO: In the lower RPM range, the engine does not have any compression until the intake valve closes. As the engine speed increases, there is a ram or inertia effect which begins compression progressively sooner with engine speed.

      Now, we compress the air/fuel mixture and ignite it at the proper time in order to maximize the push down on the power stroke, or stroke three. Remember, I said most of the cylinder pressure is gone by 90 degrees ATDC, and you can see that with our 268 degree cam, that the exhaust valve begins to open 62 degrees BBDC, that is, before the exhaust stroke actually begins. So adding again, we have 62 + 180 (stroke four) = 242 degrees. Thus at TDC at the end of the exhaust stroke, the intake valve has opened but the exhaust has not closed. The exhaust valve remains open for 268 - 242 = 26 degrees ATDC. With the intake valve opening at 26 degrees BTDC and the exhaust closing at 26 degrees ATDC we have a total of 52 degrees of overlap.

      Now, with the basics down, we can start discussing duration, lift, lobe centers, compression, and cylinder flow.

      VALVE TIMING EVENTS - ORDER OF IMPORTANCE

      Let us now take the four valve timing events and put them in order of importance. The LEAST important is the exhaust valve opening. It could open anywhere from 50 degrees to 90 degrees BBDC. If it opens late, close to the bottom, you will take advantage of the expansion, or power, stroke and it will be easier to pass a smog test, but you will pay for it with pumping losses by not having enough time to let the cylinder blow-down. You must let the residual gas start out of the exhaust valve early enough so that the piston will not have to work so hard to push it out. Opening the exhaust valve earlier will give the engine a longer blow-down period which will reduce pumping losses. But, if you are only interested in low speed operation, say up to 4000 RPM, you can open the exhaust valve later.

      The next least important timing point is the exhaust valve closing. If it closes early, say around 15 degrees ATDC, you will have a short valve overlap period. Less overlap makes it easier to pass the smog test, but it does not help power at the higher engine speeds. Closing the exhaust valve later, in the vicinity of 40 degrees ATDC, will mean a longer valve overlap period and a lot more intake charge dilution that will translate into poor low-speed operation. Some compromise must clearly be made to determine just how much overlap one needs to use. Many factors such as idle quality, low speed throttle response, fuel economy, port size, and combustion chamber design must be considered in making this choice.

      A somewhat more important timing event is the intake valve opening. Early opening allows for a greater valve overlap period and adds to poor response at low engine speeds. Now, for the high performance enthusiast, low engine speed could mean 3000 RPM, but I would not consider such an engine as appropriate for normal street use! If you are not concerned about passing the smog test, then early intake valve opening will help the power output of the engine. That is, earlier valve opening will have the valve open further when the piston reaches maximum velocity and that, in turn, will increase volumetric efficiency.

      I must stop now and ask you a question about your engine. If a stock ABA head does not flow much air above 0.448" of valve lift, and it is possible to have the intake valve open that much by the time the piston reaches maximum velocity, why do some people think they need a lift higher than that???

      Now, the last timing event is the most important, and the most critical to engine performance - THE CLOSING OF THE INTAKE VALVE. This event governs both the engine's RPM range and its effective compression ratio. If the intake valve closes early, say about 50 degrees ABDC, then it limits how much air/fuel mixture can enter the cylinder. Such an early closing will provide very nice low speed engine operation, but at the same time it limits the ultimate power output as well as RPM. Another problem with early intake valve closing that most people do not consider is that if you have a high compression engine, say 10:1 or higher, you will have more pumping loss trying to compress the mixture. This might even lead to head gasket and/or piston failure! These observations suggest that if you close the intake valve later the cylinder will have more time to take in more air/fuel and the RPM will move up. That seems simple enough, doesn't it? The later the intake valve closes the higher the RPM and therefore the more power, MAYBE? It turns out that if the intake valve closes past 75 degrees ABDC, you could lose most of your low-speed torque and if your static compression ratio is only 8:1, the engine will not be able to reach its horsepower potential. This should give you a better understanding of why the intake valve closing is the most important timing event.

      CAM SELECTION REQUIREMENTS

      So, now you ask, "What do I need to know to make a proper camshaft selection for my particular application?" The list is long. First of all, in what RPM range will you want power: 1-4000 RPM, 3-6000 RPM, 5-8000 RPM, etc.? What is the size of the engine? What are the bore and stroke dimensions? How long is the center-to-center distance on the connecting rod? How much piston pin offset is there? What is the static compression ratio? In the cylinder head, what is the maximum air flow (in cubic feet per minute or CFM) in the intake track with the intake manifold and throttle body installed? At what valve lift does the air flow level out on both the intake and exhaust valves? What is the percentage of air flow of the exhaust versus the intake? What are the valve sizes? What are the lengths and sizes of the intake and exhaust systems? Once you have this data, you should be able to make a logical cam choice; but sometimes you might have to face the reality that your basic engine parameters are wrong for the RPM range you are after. How can a layperson look in a cam catalog and make an intelligent choice? First the parts supplier must supply the proper information in order to help the customer choose the right camshaft for his/her application. But, in addition, you need to be prepared with the right information about your engine and what you ultimately want to be driving.


      CYLINDER HEAD FLOW BASICS

      Let us now review some basic cylinder head data that one must consider before selecting a camshaft. Most people will agree with the statement that larger valves are required for more power. But now we need to ask several questions. What happens to the volumetric flow rate (in CFM) when valve sizes are increased? What about the port velocities, both intake and exhaust? How are the exhaust and intake flows effected? IS BIGGER REALLY BETTER? When you are dealing with a stock cam, say 250 degrees duration, it does indeed help to increase the valve size to get more flow through the engine. Low to mid-lift flow is very important on the exhaust valve and mid-lift to full lift flow is very important on the intake valve. Some engines respond to increasing the exhaust flow so that it almost matches the intake flow. Based on valve diameters, you will find that the exhaust flow is about 80% of the intake flow in your typical engine. Design guidelines developed by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) suggest that the exhaust flow should be 75-80% of the intake. I prefer to be in the 80-85% range and port the head to achieve about 75-80% exhaust CFM flow compared to intake CFM flow. When using a stock cam, you can get good results even at exhaust/intake ratios of 90-95%. Such high ratios will also work in drag racing applications where the engine is intended to operate at wide open throttle (WOT) conditions. However, when a camshaft with more duration is installed in a "hot" street, auto cross, or road racing engine, a 90-95% exhaust/intake flow will over scavenge the cylinder resulting in wasted fuel and an undesirable reduction in torque.

      COMPRESSION AND DURATION

      Just about any engine would benefit from a prepared cylinder head, a good exhaust system (with a relatively small diameter for street use), and maybe a little larger throttle body bore. As you increase the RPM band, you'll need to increase the compression ratio and add some more duration to the cam. The more duration you add, the more compression you'll need and that combination will increase the upper mid-range and top-end power. It is very important to keep your combination balanced.
      Last edited by 911_fan; 07-27-2010 at 10:38 AM.

    2. 07-27-2010 10:33 AM #2
      Some facts and opinions....

      *A brief introduction to camshaft dynamics*

      Stock camshafts are designed by the manufacturer to have a smooth idle and give optimum fuel economy with excellent drivability from idle to a modest redline. While this is ideal for “normal” cars, it is a hindrance when building an engine for all-out performance. Replacing your stock camshaft with a more aggressively-ground camshaft is the first step in letting your head move air more efficiently. Greater volumetric efficiency produces horsepower and torque.

      Camshafts are sold by their Advertised Duration number. This number represents the actual seat-to-seat duration (as expressed in crankshaft degrees) taken at a .1mm checking height. When choosing a camshaft, the advertised duration will give you an idea as to where the power band will be. Generally speaking, a higher duration number translates into your usable power band being pushed further up the rpm range.

      The Lobe Separation Angle (LSA) of the camshaft lobe is where the peak lift occurs in crankshaft degrees either BTDC or ATDC. The LSA is the result of your lobe centerlines added together, then divided by two. Some camshafts are ground with identical lobe centers (e.g. 110° + 110° / 2 = 110°) while others have mismatched lobe centers (e.g. 109.5° + 110.5° = 110°). Although both cams share the same 110° Lobe center, their performance will be much different. The LSA will be a determining factor in what your valve overlap will be in relation to the duration you decide to go with. High-duration camshafts with wide LSAs (e.g. between 106°-110°) are ideal for upper rpm power and produce a lumpy idle. Narrower LSAs (e.g. 111°-115°) accentuate low-end torque and provide a smoother idle.

      Lift is the total amount of valve movement created by the camshaft. Increased valve lift increases the total amount of power made over the entire rpm band. Water cooled VW/Audi heads use cam followers between the lobe and the valve stem. This means that the total lift provided from the camshaft lobe is the same lift that the valve will see.

      It is important to remember that 'bigger is better' does not apply here and that over-camming a head is a rookie mistake. Make sure you do your homework before investing. A camshaft well-matched to the head's flow characteristics will deliver maximum torque and power across the desired power band. A cam that is ill-matched to the engine's spec or the application (e.g. commuter vs. rally vs. drag) may make a vehicle slower if not simply unpleasant to drive.[/quote]


      *Subjective author's notes on OBDII valve springs*

      The fabled lift max for OBDII single valve springs is .432". One publication states the "ragged edge" is between .425"-.429". It's often asked whether a dual spring upgrade is necessary. I'm hoping the pics below shed some light on how very dumb it is to run high lift cams (over .432") on the stock springs.

      I measured out the installed height of the single valve spring off an OBDII head. The installed height, from the spring seat to the top of the retainer = 1.400". I put a retainer/spring in my vice and cranked it up to 1.400". It looks like this:



      Then I fully compressed the spring. The height of the compressed spring was .945" which gives us .455" of distance from the installed height to the compressed height to utilize for valve lift.

      The lift of the stock OBDII cam is .417". Deducting the .417" lift to the installed spring height looks like this:



      As you can see, the lift of the stock cam brings the spring to the edge of lift distance that's left. The coils on both the bottom and top are binding. Due to the nature of the coils, one side is more compressed than the other. One side of the spring is fulled binding, while the other side has some space left to compress. As you go with higher and higher lift, that space decreases rather quickly. For a cam with a .432" lift (260*, 268/260*, ect) the space between the middle coils is about .017". For those lazy ones that run an Autotech 270 (.449" lift), the space left between the middle coils is about .008". Add to that the higher rpms run with these larger cams and you got a recipe for disaster. Once the spring fully binds, you put excessive wear on the nose of the cam lobe which increases wear and eventual failure.

      Although I took great care in taking as accurate of measurements as I could, it's still not 100% accurate. Due to the nature of the machining processes and differences in each particular head, I would honestly factor in a good +/- .005" wiggle room in my measurements. This means that there might be more compression space on some springs, and less in others. Like I had mentioned before, when you run these springs to the max, you then run into issues where the nose of the lobe has problems passing over the lifter face. And what could happen is that the spring fully compresses and the extra compression needed is taken up by the lifter. So not only are you compromising the spring, you are compromising the lifter as well. And I think it goes without say what happens when you rev these springs high.

      Is an extra $120 not worth it for a safer running engine?

      Also, this is the distance in lift between the stock cam and an Autotech 270* (.449") or a Techtonics 276* (.450*) cam:



      Doesn't look like much, but to a spring almost compressed, it really is a lot.

      --It is also strongly recommended that new cam followers (aka lifters) be used when installing a new camshaft. Flat tappet cams sometimes have taper across the face of the lobe. The tappet will have a slight convex radius to match this taper. When camshafts break-in the taper over the nose and the radius of the lifter is slightly worn in. If you run a lifter with a reduced (worn) radius against a new lobe with correct taper, the edge of the lobe will have concentrated loading. This high load can cause the camshaft material to break down rapidly causing a failure.


      *Camshaft myths*

      Myth #1: As stated in ads..."Techtonics 266* (aka 270*)". I don't know where or who started this marketing scheme, but I just want to clarify this. These are actually two slightly different cam profiles...the 270* having more duration and lift. The 270* has a bit more of an aggressive ramp rate over the 266* as well. They do share the same center lines and lift. Power delivery is virtually the same between the two.

      Myth #2: "You cannot run a cam bigger than a 260* within a single valve spring head." Duration has nothing to do with the amount of lift a valve spring can handle. I believe this myth was adopted because one of the more famous camshafts, the Techtonics 260*, has a.432" lift. (which has been the understood lift ceiling for OEM single valve spring heads).
      There are a handful of camshafts available on the market that offer larger-than-260* durations.

      Myth #3: Camshaft break-in procedures: "You gotta drive 500 miles to break it in." Proper break-in for a new camshaft is 20 minutes at a varying 1900-2100rpms

      Myth #4: "You cant run high duration camshafts with a turbo/supercharger." Actually, you can. Knowing the specs of the camshaft is vital, though. Remember, while some valve overlap is good with forced induction, too much, and you blow all your boost out the back of the car. Pay close attention to the lobe centers of the cam and the overlap of the intake/exhaust valves. There are quite a few 268*-272* duration cams on the market that do very well in forced induction applications.
      Little know fact...the Neuspeed 268* is actually their upgrade cam for their supercharger. (you won't find that wirtten on their site, though.) Why? 113* lobe center!

    3. 07-27-2010 10:33 AM #3
      What Does It All Mean?


      Here are the general terms and definitions associated with the parts within your head.


      FLAT TAPPET CAMS are cams designed for use with either hydraulic or solid lifters (but not both) with a bottom surface which is nearly flat. I say nearly flat because these lifters are actually slightly convex in shape. When the convex surface of the lifter matches with the slightly angled surface of the cam lobe (the portion of the camshaft that creates valve train movement) the lifter will rotate in its bore. If the lifter doesn't rotate for any reason the cam and lifter will wear out very quickly.

      HYDRAULIC CAMS use lifters that utilize the engine's oiling system to automatically adjust the valve lash (clearance) to zero. They are the only type of lifters used on VW heads 1985
      MECHANICAL/SOLID CAMS use a solid (lifter) which requires regular valve adjustment. Some performance shops prefer solid lifters, even for street use, because they can adjust the way a cam will perform to a limited extent by changing the amount of lash (clearance) in the valve train. Decreasing the lash increases the duration and lift, increasing the lash decreases the duration and lift. VW used these up till 1984 when they switched to a hydraulic lifter head.

      DURATION is the length of time that the valve is held open by the cam. This is measured by the degrees that the crankshaft rotates. More degrees of duration will make the engine operate in a higher rpm range. There are two ways of rating duration:

      **ADVERTISED DURATION was originally the S.A.E. (Society of Automotive Engineers) standard as measured from .006" of valve lift. Over the years this has been altered by most performance cam makers to make their cams look hotter, or different, than the specs of their competitors. Valve lift points as low as .002" are sometimes used and this can add up to thirty degrees to the advertised figure. Even when the cams being compared are all measured the same way the figures can still be misleading if you don't know what the cams were designed for. Cams designed for quiet street operation will show higher .006" duration numbers than performance cams of the same rpm range.

      **DURATION MEASURED FROM .040” (1mm), or .050" of cam lift is the best for comparison of specs because most of the variations in cam design are reduced and the valves are open enough to start getting some flow past them. Most cam makers give accurate ratings and good comparisons are possible between cams of the same type (hydraulic or solid or roller).

      LIFT is usually measured as gross (total) valve lift. This works for hydraulic lifter cams but is misleading for solid lifter cams because you must subtract the valve clearance to get the net (real) valve lift.

      LOBE AREA is obtained by measuring the lift at each degree of rotation and adding them all together. This will tell you very quickly how much difference (if any) there is between two cams with the same lift and duration. This is rarely supplied by cam makers.

      CENTERLINES are the degrees the crankshaft turns from top dead center to the center of the top of the cam lobe (nose of the cam). If you add the centers of both cam lobes together and divide by two you will have the lobe center separation.

      LOBE SEPARATION ANGLE is the degrees the cam turns from the center of the exhaust lobe to the center of the intake lobe on the same cylinder. Wide centerlines (113*) give minimal valve overlap, while on narrow centerlines (108*), more ovelap is available.

      VALVE LASH is the amount of clearance required at the valve tip with mechanical/solid lifters cams.

      VALVE TIMING is the opening and closing points of the valves measured in relation to the degrees of crankshaft rotation. These specs are often given by both the advertised and the .040"/.050" methods. These points can be advanced or retarded (as a group) after installation with an adjustable cam gear.

      ASYMMETRICAL CAM LOBES are designed with the closing side of the lobe different in shape than the opening side. This difference is only visible in some overhead cams. When both sides are the same they are SYMMETRICAL.

      ASYMETRICAL CAM DURATIONS are split duration camshafts where the intake side is of a different duration than the exhaust side. Forced Induction-specific cams utilize this asymmetric design to allow for more duration, yet keep a wide enough centerline as to keep valve overlap to a minimum.

      BASE CIRCLE, or the heel, is the round portion of the cam lobe. This is where the lifter rides while the valve is closed. VW hydraulic camshafts have a 1.34" base circle, where a mechanical./solid lifter cam has a larger 1.5".

      BILLETS and CORES are the blank shafts that the camshafts are made from. CAST CORES and PROFERAL IRON BILLETS are used for most flat tappet camshafts. STEEL BILLETS are used for roller tappet camshafts.

      CAM LOBES are the parts of the camshaft that create the valve movement.

      CAM PROFILE or CAM GRIND is the actual shape of the cam lobe.

      CLEARANCE RAMPS are the portion of the cam lobe between the base circle and where the valve starts to open. They slowly take up any slack in the valve train and reduce the shock created by the sudden movement of the lifter.

      FLANKS are the sides of the cam lobe that cause the movement that raises and lowers the valve. They are also called the OPENING and CLOSING RAMPS.

      NOSE of the cam lobe is the portion of the lobe with the highest lift.

      RATE OF LIFT refers to the speed that the valve opens and closes. Cams with a higher rate of lift have more lobe area to provide performance gains.

      VALVE OVERLAP is the term used when the piston is at top dead center and both the intake and exhaust valves are off their seats the same amount. With a single pattern cam this would mean that the camshaft was timed straight up. Advancing or retarding the camshaft will open one of the valves more at top dead center and reduce the valve to piston clearance.

      VALVE FLOAT happens when the speed of the engine is too great for the valve springs to handle. The valves will stay open and/or "bounce" on their seats. The clearance in the valve train created by valve float will also cause hydraulic lifters to "pump up" as they try to eliminate the valve clearance.

      PUMP-UP happens in stock hydraulic lifters at high rpm. They simply can't handle the volume of oil and the extra operating speeds so they expand, or pump up, causing the valves to stay off their seats slightly even while the lifter is on the base circle of the cam.

      VALVE LASH is the amount of clearance, measured at the valve, in the valve train when using a mechanical/solid camshaft.

      VALVE TRAIN refers to the parts leading from the cam lobe to the valve.
      Last edited by 911_fan; 07-27-2010 at 10:40 AM.

    4. 07-27-2010 10:34 AM #4
      The following contains camshaft options available for the MKIII/MKIV 2.0 Liter.

      I will try to give the most info I can regarding overall grind specifications, but please be aware, not all manufactures display their grind specs. In these instances, they will be noted as 'Unknown'. For the time being, I will only be adding HYDRAULIC camshafts. In all instances, intake precedes exhaust in the descriptions.


      Camshafts that require valvetrain upgrades will be preceded by an asterisk (*).

      Quote Originally Posted by Stock
      OBDI camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: Unknown
      Duration @ .050": 211*/212*
      Valve Lift: .400"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 113.2* / 113.8*
      Lobe Center: 113.5*
      Valve Timing: -7.7/38.7 - 39.8/-7.8
      Valve Overlap: -15.5*

      OBDII camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: Unknown
      Duration @ .050": 210*/210*
      Valve Lift: .417"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 110.8* / 109.2*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: -5.8/35.8 - 34.2/-4.2
      Valve Overlap: -10*
      Quote Originally Posted by Stock G60 cam spec
      Advertised G60 specs
      Advertised Duration: 260/260
      Advertised In/Ex centerlines: 100*/116*
      Advertised Lobe Center: 113*
      Advertised Timing: 30/50 - 66/14
      Advertised overlap: 44*

      G60 camshaft measured @ .050"/1mm
      Duration @ .050": 214*/214*
      Duration @ 1mm: 220*/220*
      Valve Lift: .400"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines@ .050": 99* / 121*
      Centerlines@ 1mm: 100* / 120*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing @ .050": 8/26 - 48/-14
      Valve Overlap @ .050": -6*
      Valve Timing @ 1mm: 10/30 - 50/-10
      Valve Overlap @ 1mm: 0*
      Quote Originally Posted by VW diesel cam specs

      ALH camshaft measured @ 1mm
      Duration @ 1mm: 189*/189*
      Valve Lift: .337"/.337"
      Centerlines: 110.5*/113.5*
      Lobe Center: 112*
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm -16/25 - 28/-19
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm -35*

      SDI camshaft measured @ 1mm
      Duration @ 1mm: 194*/210*
      Valve Lift: N/A
      Centerlines: 108*/115*
      Lobe Center: 111.5*
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm -11/25 - 40/-10
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm -21*

      AAZ camshaft measured @ 1mm
      Duration @ 1mm: 194*/199*
      Valve Lift: .337"/.332"
      Centerlines: 103*/106*
      Lobe Center: 104.5*
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm -6/20 - 25.5/-6.5
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm -12.5*
      Quote Originally Posted by Additional stock camshaft info
      Quote Originally Posted by Techtonics Tuning
      260/256 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 260*/256*
      Duration @ .050" 219*/216*
      Valve Lift: .421" / .410"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 111.7* / 110.3*
      Lobe Center: 111*
      Valve Timing: -2.2/41.2 - 38.3/2.3
      Valve Overlap: -4.5*

      260 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 260*
      Duration @ .050": 220*
      Valve Lift: .432"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 108.68 / 111.4*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 1.4/38.6 - 41.1/-1.4
      Valve Overlap: 0*

      *266 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 266*
      Duration @ .050" 223*/223*
      Valve Lift: .448" / .448"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 111.8* / 112.2*
      Lobe Center: 112*
      Valve Timing: -0.3/43.3 - 43.7/-0.7
      Valve Overlap: -10*

      268/260 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 268*/260*
      Duration @ .050" 227*/221*
      Valve Lift: .432" / .432"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 113.6* / 111.4*
      Lobe Center: 112.5*
      Valve Timing: -0.1/47.1 - 41.9/-0.9
      Valve Overlap: -1*

      *268 camshaft measured @ .050"/1mm
      Advertised Duration: 268*
      Duration @ .050" 226*/225*
      Duration @ 1mm 231.4*/231.4*
      Valve Lift: .440" / .440"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown @ .050"
      Lift @ TDC: 0.063" / 0.063" @ 1mm
      Centerlines: 110.2* / 109.8*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 2.8/43.2 - 42.3/2.7
      Valve Timing: 5.3/45.6 - 46.1/5.8
      Valve Overlap: 5.5* @ .050"
      Valve Overlap: 11.1* @ 1mm


      *272 camshaft measured @ .050"/1mm
      Advertised Duration: 272*
      Duration @ .050" 228.7*/228.7*
      Duration @ 1mm 243.6*/243.8*
      Valve Lift: .44835" / .44902"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown @ .050"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown @ 1mm
      Centerlines @ .050": 109.1* / 110.5*
      Centerlines @ .040": 108.6* / 110.8*
      Lobe Center @ .050": 109.8*
      Lobe Center @ .040": 109.7*
      Valve Timing: 4.6/44.1 - 44.2/4.6
      Valve Timing: 12/51.6 - 51.8/12
      Valve Overlap: 9.1* @ .050"
      Valve Overlap: 24.1* @ 1mm"

      *276 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 276*
      Duration @ .050" 234*/234*
      Valve Lift: .449" / .449"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 110.1* / 109.9*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 6.9/47.1 - 46.9/7.1
      Valve Overlap: 14*

      *276 (FI) camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 276*
      Duration @ .050" 235.3*/234.4*
      Valve Lift: .445" / .445"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 114.1* / 111.2*
      Lobe Center: 112.7*
      Valve Timing: 4.9/50.4 - 49.6/4.9
      Valve Overlap: 9.8*

      *288 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 288*
      Duration @ .050" 245*/244*
      Valve Lift: .460" / .460"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 110.5* / 109.5*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 12/53 - 51.5/12.5
      Valve Overlap: 24.5*

      298* camshaft measured @ .050" [b]Polo Cup Series profile Techtonics copied and changed to 110*LSA
      Advertised Duration: 298*
      Duration @ .050": 254.99* (IN) / 255.15* (EX)
      Valve Lift: .472" (12.0050mm (IN) / 11.9959 (EX)
      Lift @ TDC: 3.942" (IN) 3.873" (EX)
      Centerlines: 107.5* / 108.3*
      Lobe Center: 107.9*
      Valve Timing: 19.97/55.02 - 55.92/19.23
      Valve Overlap: 39.2*
      Quote Originally Posted by Autotech
      260 camshaft measured @ .050"
      Advertised Duration: 260*/256*
      Duration @ .050" Unknown
      Valve Lift: .421"/ .409"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 111*
      Valve Timing: Unknown
      Valve Overlap: Unknown

      *270 camshaft measured @ .050"/1mm
      Advertised Duration: 270*
      Duration @ .050" 224*/224*
      Duration @ 1mm 231*/230*
      Valve Lift: .449" / .449"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Lift @ TDC: 0.052" / 0.051" @ 1 mm
      Centerlines: 110*/114* @ .050"
      Centerlines: 112*/112* @ 1mm
      Lobe Center: 112*
      Valve Timing: 2/42 - 46/-2 @ .050"
      Valve Timing: 3.5/47.0 - 47.5/3.0 @ 1mm
      Valve Overlap: 0* @ .050"
      Valve Overlap: 6.5* @ 1mm
      Quote Originally Posted by Neuspeed
      260 camshaft measured @ .004” / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 260*
      Duration @ .004 260*/260*
      Duration @ 1mm: 226.3* / 225.8*
      Valve Lift: .420" / .420"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Lift @ TDC: .051" / .052" @1mm
      Centerlines @ TDC: 110*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 20/60 - 60/20 @ .004:
      Valve Timing: 3/42.8 - 43.3/3 @ 1mm
      Valve Overlap: 40* @ .004"
      Valve Overlap: 6* @ 1mm

      *268 camshaft measured @ .004”
      Advertised Duration: 268*/268*
      Duration @ .004 268*/268*
      Valve Lift: .440" / .440"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 113*/113*
      Lobe Center: 113*
      Valve Timing: 21/67 - 67/21
      Valve Overlap: 42*

      *276 camshaft measured @ .004” / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 276*
      Duration @ .004 276*/276*
      Duration @ 1mm: 239.6* / 239.3*
      Valve Lift: .453" / .453"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Lift @ TDC: .084" / .080" @1mm
      Centerlines: 110* @ .004"
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 28/68 - 68/28 @ .004"
      Valve Timing: 9.9/50.1 - 49.7/9.2 @ 1mm
      Valve Overlap: 56*
      Valve Overlap: 19.1* @ 1mm
      Quote Originally Posted by Schrick
      *260 camshaft measured @ .004”
      Advertised Duration: 260*/260*
      Duration @ .004 260*/260*
      Valve Lift: .433" / .433"
      Lift @ TDC: .023"/.027"
      Centerlines: 116*/116*
      Lobe Center: 116*
      Valve Timing: 14/66 - 66/14
      Valve Overlap: 28*

      268 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 268*/268*
      Duration @ .004 268*/268*
      Valve Lift: .441" / .441"
      Lift @ TDC: .047"/.047"
      Centerlines: 113*/113*
      Lobe Center: 113*
      Valve Timing: 21/67 - 67/21
      Valve Overlap: 42*

      *272/268 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 272*/268*
      Duration @ .004 272*/268*
      Valve Lift: .449" / .449"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 110*/112*
      Lobe Center: 111*
      Valve Timing: 26/66 - 66/22
      Valve Overlap: 48*

      *272/272 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 272*/272*
      Duration @ .004 272*/272*
      Valve Lift: .449" / .449"
      Lift @ TDC: .063"/.067"
      Centerlines: 111*/111*
      Lobe Center: 111*
      Valve Timing: 26/66 - 66/26
      Valve Overlap: 52*

      * 268/276 (G60) camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 268*/276*
      Duration @ .004 268*/276*
      Valve Lift: .441" / .452"
      Lift @ TDC: .051"/.071"
      Centerlines: 112*/112*
      Lobe Center: 112*
      Valve Timing: 22/66 - 070/26
      Valve Overlap: 48*

      *276 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 276*/276*
      Duration @ .004 276*/276*
      Valve Lift: .453" / .453"
      Lift @ TDC: .083"/.083"
      Centerlines: 110*/110*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 28/68 - 68/28
      Valve Overlap: 56*

      *288 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 288*/288*
      Duration @ .004 288*/288*
      Valve Lift: .461" / .461"
      Lift @ TDC: .134"/.134"
      Centerlines: 109*/109*
      Lobe Center: 109*
      Valve Timing: 34/74 - 74/34
      Valve Overlap: 68*
      Quote Originally Posted by Cat Cam
      258 camshaft measured @ ..050 / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 258*
      Duration @ .050" 224*/224*
      Duration @ 1mm: 230*/230*
      Valve Lift: .419"/.419"
      Lift @ TDC: .067"/.065"
      Centerlines: 109*/109*
      Lobe Center: 109*
      Valve Timing: @ .050" 3/41 - 41/3
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm 6/44 - 44/6
      Valve Overlap: @ .050 - 6*
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm - 12*

      * 261 camshaft measured @ ..050 / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 261*
      Duration @ .050" 220*/220*
      Duration @ 1mm: 226*/6*22
      Valve Lift: .456"/.456"
      Lift @ TDC: .047"/.047"
      Centerlines: 110*/110*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: @ .050"
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm
      Valve Overlap: @ .050"
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm


      * 262 camshaft measured @ ..050 / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 262*
      Duration @ .050" 226*/226*
      Duration @ 1mm: 231*/231**
      Valve Lift: .441"/.441"
      Lift @ TDC: .049"/.053"
      Centerlines: 113*/113*
      Lobe Center: 113*
      Valve Timing: @ .050": 0/46-46/0
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm: 2/49-49/2
      Valve Overlap: @ .050" 0*
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm: 4*


      266/267 camshaft measured @ ..050 / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 266* / 267*
      Duration @ .050"
      Duration @ 1mm: 228*/228*
      Valve Lift: .429" / .429"
      Lift @ TDC: .057"/.055"
      Centerlines: 110*/110*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: @ .050": Unknown
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm: 4/44 - 44/4
      Valve Overlap: @ .050" Unknown
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm: 8*


      273 camshaft measured @ ..050 / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 273*
      Duration @ .050" 230*/230*
      Duration @ 1mm: 236*/236*
      Valve Lift: .431*/431*
      Lift @ TDC: .067"/.067"
      Centerlines: 112*/112*
      Lobe Center: 112*
      Valve Timing: @ .050": 3/47 - 47/3
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm: 6/50 - 50/6
      Valve Overlap: @ .050" 6*
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm: 12*


      273 camshaft measured @ ..050 / 1mm
      Advertised Duration: 273*
      Duration @ .050" 230*/230*
      Duration @ 1mm: 236*/236*
      Valve Lift: .431"/.431"
      Lift @ TDC: .078"/.077"
      Centerlines: 110*/110*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: @ .050": 5/45 - 45/5
      Valve Timing: @ 1mm: 8/48 - 48/8
      Valve Overlap: @ .050" 10*
      Valve Overlap: @ 1mm 16*
      Quote Originally Posted by Piper
      *264 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 256*/260*
      Duration @ .004 260*/264*
      Valve Lift: .417" / .428"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 18/58 - 62/22
      Valve Overlap: 40*
      Quote Originally Posted by Eurospec Sport
      *264 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 264*
      Duration @ .004 264*/264*
      Valve Lift: .443" / .445"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 22/62 - 62/22
      Valve Overlap: 44*

      *268 camshaft measured @ .004”
      Advertised Duration: 268*
      Duration @ .004 268*/268*
      Valve Lift: .440" / .440"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 113*
      Valve Timing: 24/62 - 70/18
      Valve Overlap: 42*

      *272 camshaft measured @ .004”
      Advertised Duration: 272*
      Duration @ .004 272*/272*
      Valve Lift: .449" / .449"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: Unknown
      Valve Overlap: Unknown

      *272 camshaft measured @ .004”
      Advertised Duration: 272*
      Duration @ .004 272*/272*
      Valve Lift: .472" / .472"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 112*
      Valve Timing: 27/65 - 71/21
      Valve Overlap: 48

      *276 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 276*
      Duration @ .004 276*/276*
      Valve Lift: .453" / .453"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: Unknown
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: Unknown
      Valve Overlap: Unknown

      *280 camshaft measured @ .004"
      Advertised Duration: 280*
      Duration @ .004 280*/280*
      Valve Lift: .470" / .470"
      Lift @ TDC: Unknown
      Centerlines: 110*/110*
      Lobe Center: 110*
      Valve Timing: 30/70 - 70/30
      Valve Overlap: 60*
      Quote Originally Posted by VR6 camshaft info
      Stock

      Duration @ 1mm: 220
      Duration @.050" : 215
      Lift: .400"
      Lobe center: 115
      Intake open @ .050": -7.6deg (7.6deg BTDC)


      Schrick

      248

      Advertized Duration: 248/260 (In/Ex)
      Duration @ 1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .4016"/.4409" (In/Ex)
      Lobe center: n/a
      Intake open @ ???": 14.25deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ???": 53.75deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ???": 66.25deg bbdc
      Exhaust closes @ ???": 13.75deg atdc
      Peak timing In: 109.75deg
      Peak timing Ex: 116.25deg


      260 (mech)

      Advertized Duration: 260
      Lift: .4488"
      Peak timing In: 116deg
      Peak timing Ex: 118deg

      264/260 In/Ex

      Advertized Duration: 264/260
      Duration @ 1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .4488"/.4409"
      Lobe center: 115
      Intake open @ ???": 17deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ???": 67deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ???": 65deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ???": 15deg atdc

      268

      Advertized Duration: 268
      Duration @ 1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .4488"
      Lobe center: 115deg
      Intake open @ ???": 18deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ???": 70deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ???": 68deg bbdc
      Exhaust closes @ ???": 20deg atdc

      276

      Advertized duration: 276°
      Lift: .4527"
      Peak timing: 112°
      Intake open @ ???": 26deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ???": 70deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ???": 70deg bbdc
      Exhaust closes @ ???": 26deg atdc
      overlap 2.20mm


      Cat

      268

      Advertized Duration: 268
      Duration @ .1mm: 266
      Duration @.050" : 230
      Lift: .452"
      Lobe center: ??
      Intake open @ .1mm: 13deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .1mm: 73deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .1mm: 63deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .1mm: 23deg atdc
      Intake open @ .050": -5deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .050": 55deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .050": 45deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .050": 5deg atdc

      272(4)

      Advertized Duration: 272
      Duration @ .1mm: 274
      Duration @.050" : 234
      Lift: .452"
      Lobe center: ??
      Intake open @ .1mm: 17deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .1mm: 77deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .1mm: 67deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .1mm: 27deg atdc
      Intake open @ .050": -3deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .050": 57deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .050": 47deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .050": 7deg atdc

      280 Mech

      Advertized Duration: 280
      Duration @ .1mm: 280
      Duration @.050" : 242
      Lift: .419" @ .010" check
      Lobe center: ??
      Intake open @ .1mm: 30deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .1mm: 70deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .1mm: 70deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .1mm: 30deg atdc
      Intake open @ .050": 11deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .050": 51deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .050": 51deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .050": 11deg atdc

      284 Mech

      Advertized Duration: 284
      Duration @ .1mm: 284
      Duration @.050" : 242
      Lift: .473" @ .015" check
      Lobe center: ??
      Intake open @ .1mm: 32deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .1mm: 72deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .1mm: 72deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .1mm: 32deg atdc
      Intake open @ .050": 11deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .050": 51deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .050": 51deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .050": 11deg atdc

      308 Mech

      Advertized Duration: 308
      Duration @ .1mm: 308
      Duration @.050" : 266
      Lift: .500" @ .009" check
      Lobe center: ??
      Intake open @ .1mm: 48deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .1mm: 80deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .1mm: 80deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .1mm: 48deg atdc
      Intake open @ .050": 27deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ .050": 59deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ .050": 59deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ .050": 27deg atdc

      DSR

      256

      Advertized Duration: 256
      Duration @.050" : 222
      Lift: .4323"
      Lobe center: 112in/116ex (NA), 118 (FI)
      Intake open @ ?": 8deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ?": 68deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ?": 68deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ?": 8deg atdc


      266

      Advertized Duration: 266
      Duration @.050" : 224
      Lift: .4409"
      Lobe center: 112
      Intake open @ ?": 13deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ?": 73deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ?": 73deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ?": 13deg atdc


      TT

      264/260 In/Ex
      Duration @ 1mm: 240/238
      Duration @.050" : 224/223
      Lift: .447/.440"
      Lobe center: 115
      Intake open @ .050": -5.2 (5.2deg BTDC)

      288

      TT288s

      Advertized duration; 288
      Duration at .020": 261
      Duration at 1mm: 249.5/248.5
      Duration at .050": 245/244
      Lift; .460"
      Lobe center: 110
      In open @ .050": 12btdc


      Kent

      264

      Advertized Duration: 264
      Duration @ .1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .4307"
      Lobe center: 100deg
      Intake open @ ?: 22deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ?: 62deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ?: 62deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ?: 22deg atdc


      Piper

      264 "Fast Road"

      Advertized Duration: 264
      Advertized Powerband: 1800-6000
      Duration @ .1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .428"
      Lobe center: ??deg
      Intake open @ ?: 22deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ?: 62deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ?: 62deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ?: 22deg atdc

      276 "Road/Rally"

      Advertized Duration: 276
      Advertized Powerband: 2300-6500
      Duration @ .1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .450"
      Lobe center: ??deg
      Intake open @ ?: 30deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ?: 66deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ?: 66deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ?: 30deg atdc

      294 "Rally"

      Advertized Duration: 294
      Advertized Powerband: 2700-7000
      Duration @ .1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : n/a
      Lift: .445"
      Lobe center: ??deg
      Intake open @ ?: 41deg btdc (all in crank degrees)
      Intake closes @ ?: 73deg abdc
      Exhaust open @ ?: 73deg bbdc
      Exhuast closes @ ?: 41deg atdc

      WEB Cams

      244

      Advertized Duration: 244
      Duration @ .1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : 230
      Lift: .428"
      Lobe center: ??deg

      254

      Advertized Duration: 254
      Duration @ .1mm: n/a
      Duration @.050" : 237
      Lift: .432"
      Lobe center: ??deg
      Note: check all valve/piston clearances before installing
      Last edited by 911_fan; 10-09-2012 at 12:30 PM.

    5. Member unc1185's Avatar
      Join Date
      Dec 20th, 2008
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      337 GTi
      07-28-2010 02:39 PM #5
      Wow! I never want to see anyone ask about cams again! good reading, nice write-up
      Quote Originally Posted by zrace07 View Post
      "MKIII's are like the Hotel California... You can check out any time you like, but you can never leave."

      ┌∩┐(0. .0)┌∩┐

    6. 07-28-2010 10:17 PM #6
      Probably the most concentrated source of useful 2.0 information that can be found on the vortex right now.
      Last edited by jerrymic; 07-29-2010 at 12:55 AM. Reason: travis is hilarious

    7. 07-28-2010 10:48 PM #7
      IF the mods make it a sticky, then I lose access to edit the posts. So, no, dont make it a sticky.

    8. 08-01-2010 12:28 PM #8
      Quote Originally Posted by tdogg74 View Post
      HYDRAULIC CAMS use lifters that utilize the engine's oiling system to automatically adjust the valve lash (clearance) to zero. They are the only type of lifters used on VW heads 1985
      MECHANICAL/SOLID CAMS use a solid (lifter) which requires regular valve adjustment. Some performance shops prefer solid lifters, even for street use, because they can adjust the way a cam will perform to a limited extent by changing the amount of lash (clearance) in the valve train. Decreasing the lash increases the duration and lift, increasing the lash decreases the duration and lift. VW used these up till 1984 when they switched to a hydraulic lifter head.
      valve lift.
      Great write up. Thanks

      Being a Scirocco guy, there's one really minor thing I've got to call you out on, VW continued to make solid lifter heads up until 1987 but, only 8v Sciroccos and Cabriolets got them, everything else got hydraulic lifters from 1985 onwards.

      P.S. I doubt my vote counts for anything but, I'd like to see this thread made a sticky.
      Last edited by ABA Scirocco; 08-01-2010 at 12:31 PM.

    9. Member Svedka's Avatar
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      08-01-2010 01:32 PM #9
      BEST 8v hydro cam info out there


      I've never seen a scirocco or cabby later than 84 that had a solid lifter head is there any benefit to the 85-86-87 solid lifter compared to a 026H solid lifter.

    10. 08-01-2010 01:49 PM #10
      The 85-87 solid lifter head is a 1.8L big valve head set up for air-shrouded CIS injectors, VERY similar to the 1984 1.8L head, the only difference that I'm aware of is the style of injector seats used, from a performance point of view, it's effectively identical to the 84 1.8L head.

    11. 03-09-2013 10:51 AM #11
      Three year bump.

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      03-09-2013 11:50 AM #12
      Should be required reading for all newb 8V owners. Nice bump.
      Tradition is the art of making the same mistake repeatedly, on purpose.

    13. 03-09-2013 12:14 PM #13
      Ya. Not really interested in people asking questions here...they can PM me with questions. But this thread obviously got lost and nobody reads my sticky post. So, yea...

    14. Member ps2375's Avatar
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      03-11-2013 08:33 PM #14
      For comparison, here is a set of the dual coils at the same measurements 1.4" and 0.945". This is the same pn from when ever VW started putting the dual coils in up thru the OBDI's. I have checked it in EKTA to verify it. (You'll have to excuse the blur, seems camera didn't want to focus that close.)






      These are a stock dual coil, not the "HD" ones, but those look very similar. I think the limiting factor for max lift now becomes retainer hitting valve stem seal.
      Tradition is the art of making the same mistake repeatedly, on purpose.

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