You need 5x112 pcd to fit your car. you can run others, but adapters will be needed ad if you go with adapters, buy the best quality ones in your budget.
Passats' tend to have a more aggressive offset, so the lower et+ (offset) is a more aggressive offset. I have my 04 sedan on OEM sport Eibach springs with the OEM 17" wheels and conti tires on. the car is lowered about 1.5 inches. Tires depend on what wheel you get and what you would like your tire/wheel setup to look like. The size of the wheel doesn't necessarily matter, the offset does.
Offset is how tucked in, or how far out our wheels stick from the car or fender well. The higher the offset, the more tucked in the wheels are in the fender. The lower the offset, the more the wheels stick out. If you lower or raise your car, the dimensions change, the limits change, so watch out.
I would recommend asking around. See what other people are running. I plan on keeping the car lowered and running 18" wheels. I may even lower it more on coilovers or some other static setup. I also plan on my wheels to have an et of 35mm or less.