There also may be some confusion on my part about the euro manifold. It was off of an 81 gti and apparently just because it says Germany doesn't mean that it is the European model? I was told that the Euro manifold has an o2 bung, while the US one does not. This manifold does have an o2 port but you can hardly see it in the pictures. I am also not sure that these are 10mm studs. It did have 13mm nuts as opposed to 17mm nuts. Price remains the same as apparently, true Euro manifolds sell for $150 bucks by themselves. If the studs are the only difference, any machine shop could put in bigger studs for a fair price. My apologies if my posting was in error.